Dutch only?
Competing language practices and language ideologies in the Netherlands


Course description

The function and meaning of the Dutch language in Dutch culture and society has become a prominent topic of debate among politicians, journalists, and opinion makers in general. But it is not only professionals who engage in this debate: lay persons, ‘the men and women in the street’ also passionately participate in discussions on language issues. The debate seems driven mainly by the idea that inhabitants of the Netherlands who do not speak Dutch, or speak non-standard varieties of Dutch, cannot fully ‘integrate’ into Dutch society, and hence, pose a threat to the preservation of Dutch culture and society, and Western values in general.

In this course, we will dissect the current language debate in the Netherlands and try to identify its ideological foundations (e.g. one nation-one language; one culture-one language; bi/multilingualism leads to corruption of Dutch and hence Dutch culture). We will also be looking at language practices in which new, nonstandard varieties of Dutch (e.g. the well-known ‘straattaal’, ‘street language’) play a central role.

Questions that we will be addressing here include: how are new non-standard varieties of Dutch being used; what role do they play in creating alternative ‘creolized’ social identities; how do standard and non-standard usages of Dutch co-exist and co-articulate each other? The main aim of this course is to show how and why linguistic difference can lead to heated debate and how it can be used to create or reinforce cultural, ethnic, and religious difference, often with dramatic consequences.

Many of the course readings are available online (via the Digital Library of the University Library) Inspection copies of assigned readings that are not online will be available at the beginning of the course.




dr. Vincent A. de Rooij (see Blackboard for contact info)

Time & place

Friday 09:00 - 13:00 hrs; Oostindisch Huis B017 (entrance: Kloveniersburgwal 48)


Class attendance is obligatory. If you must miss class for any reason, I expect you to notify me in advance by e-mail or telephone. Students who miss more than one class meeting will be asked to submit extra work. Frequent absence –for whatever reason– will result in exclusion from the course.


Students are expected to actively participate in discussing the assigned weekly readings. Active involvement in class meetings will reflect positively on your final grade. Students are encouraged to bring and present observations, newspaper clippings, or other materials bearing on the topics discussed to class.


Assignments are due at 10 AM on the Wednesday prior to the Friday meeting. I prefer to have hard copy but I also accept submission by e-mail <v.a.derooij@uva.nl>  The weekly coursework will consist of brief reviews (200-300 words) of required readings or data collection assignments. The reviews will be graded, and the average grade for the reviews will make up 25% of the final grade. The remaining 75% of the grade is made up by the final paper (see below).

Final paper

The final paper (4000-6000 words) makes up 75% of the final grade. Participants will present their papers at a conference at the end of the semester.

Course schedule

Week & Date Topic Assignment Readings Main points of discussion
1  [10 September] No class Written motivation for enrolling in this course (200 words max.) ---  
2  [17 September] Introduction   ---  
3  [24 September] Language ideologies: Formation and reproduction review of:
Blommaert 1999a & 1999b
Woolard 1998

Blommaert 1999a & 1999b
Milroy & Milroy 1999
Pavlenko 2002
Woolard 1998

- Core concepts: ideology-practice;
- The power of language ideologies
- Language socialization & language ideology
- How do thinking & feeling about own and other's languages impact on identity & social relations?
4  [1 October] Discourses of monolingualism versus multilingualism review of
Bennis et al. 2000 & Grezel 2000
Haugen 1985
Bennis et al. 2000
Grezel 2000
Haugen 1985
- How are ideologies of mono / multilingualism legitimized and how are they constructed in talk & writing?
5  [8 October] Language ideologies and social stereotyping

topic for final paper

review of
Irvine & Gal 2000
Stroud 2004

Irvine & Gal 2000
Stroud 2004
- Delving deeper into issues of language & identity
- How are ideas about languages involved in the (re)production of social difference, stereotypes, & unequal power relations?
6  [15 October] New Dutch(es) or Counter-languages: ‘straattaal’ [‘street language’], codeswitching, ‘ethnolects’, Poldernederlands

bibliography for final paper

review of
Cornips & de Rooij 2003
Appel 1999
Urciuoli 1991

Appel 1999
Bronkhorst 2000
Cornips 2002
Cornips & de Rooij 2003
Urciuoli 1991
- How & why do people create linguistic 'spaces' to counteract dominant language ideologies?
- How does the dominant ideology react to these practices?
7  [22 October] Discourses of language and integration: The political arena

bring opinion article & your analysis to class

review of one of the assigned readings

Blommaert & Verschueren 1998
Duyvendak & Rijkschroeff 2004
- The role of language in the discussion of migration and integration:
what are the hidden assumptions and normative ideas?
8  [29 October] Popular discourses of language and integration

bring text (web page, transcription ...) & your analysis to class

review of one of the assigned readings

Dibbits & Meder 1999.
Verkuyten 2001
Same as last week, only this time we look at 'popular' discourses (e.g. in forums on the internet)
9  [5 November] Official language use: Law, ideology, practices review of
Philips 1998
Philips 1998 - What is prescribed by law & regulations and how does this compare to actual usage & practices (information from the administration on websites, in folders et cetera; usage in official places such as town hall, courtrooms) ?
10 [12 November] Languages in the media review of
Crawford 1998b
Spitulnik 1998
Crawford 1998b
Spitulnik 1998
- Where's Standard Dutch and where not?
- Is there a place for non-standard Dutch? - Where do we find minority languages?
11 [19 November] Languages in school: Dutch only? Or… review of
two of the assigned readings
Bossers s.a.
de Bot 1994
Edwards 1985
Extra & Vallen 1997
Flores & Murillo 2001
Vallen 2001
- Discussing OECT / OALT policies (& underlying ideologies) and implementations
- Analyzing the discourse legitimating abolishment of OALT
12 [26 November] Intercultural communication: A critique of interactional sociolinguistics review of
Singh et al 1996
Singh et al 1996 - Deconstructing the language ideology underlying interactional sociolinguistics
13 [3 December] Final paper due date      
14 [10 December] Conference: Paper presentations

Bibliography of required and recommended readings

Please note: titles will be added to this list throughout the duration of the course

Appel, René. 1999. 1990-1999. 'Het springt gewoon uit je tong': Nederlands als tweede taal en andere talen in Nederland. In: Peter Burger en Jaap de Jong (red.), Taalboek van de eeuw. Den Haag: Sdu Uitgevers. 205-222.

Arslan, Zeki. 2002. OALT als cultureel erfgoed. http://www.forum.nl/pdf/OALT%203-10-02.pdf

Barker, Chris, and Dariusz Galasínski. 2001. Cultural studies and discourse analysis: A dialogue on language and identity. London: Sage. 62-85, 143-148.

Barker, Valerie, and Howard Giles. 2002. Who supports the English-Only Movement?: Evidence for misconceptions about Latino group vitality. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development 23(5)353-370. http://www.ingenta.com/isis/searching/Expand/ingenta?pub=infobike:/ /mm/jmmd/2002/00000023/00000005/art00002

Bennis, Hans, Guus Extra, Pieter Muysken en Jacomine Nortier. 2000. Het multiculturele voordeel: Meertaligheid als uitgangspunt. Taalkundig manifest. Neder-L Bulletin 0006.a. http://www.neder-l.nl/newindex.html?http://baserv.uci.kun.nl/~salemans/bulletin/2000/06/000602.html

Blackledge, Adrian. 2002. ‘What sort of people can look at a chicken and think dofednod?’: Language, ideology and nationalism in public discourse. Multilingua 21(2/3):197-226. http://www.degruyter.de/journals/multilin/2002/pdf/21_197.pdf

Blackledge, Adrian, and Aneta Pavlenko (eds). 2002. Language ideologies in multilingual contexts [= Multilingua 21(2/3)]. Berlin: Mouton De Gruyter. http://www.degruyter.de/journals/multilin/ml21_2-3.html

Blommaert, Jan (ed.). 1999. Language ideological debates. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.

Blommaert, Jan. 1999a. The debate is open. In: Jan Blommaert (ed.) 1999. 1-38.

Blommaert, Jan. 1999b. The debate is closed. In: Jan Blommaert (ed.) 1999. 425-438.

Blommaert, Jan, and Jef Verschueren. 1998. The role of language in European nationalist ideologies. In: Bambi B. Schieffelin, Kathryn A. Woolard, and Paul V. Kroskrity (eds.) 1998. 189-210.

Bokhorst-Heng, Wendy. 1999. Singapore’s Speak Mandarin Campaign: Language ideological debates in the imagining of the nation. In: Jan Blommaert (ed.) 1999. 235-265.

Bossers, Bart. s.a. [?2003]. De lange arm van Labov: Over onderwijs in eigen taal, taalachterstanden en het Taalkundig Manifest. http://www.let.vu.nl/staf/bh.bossers/LabovNET.htm

Bot, Kees de. 1994. Comment [on Edwards 1994]. International Journal of the sociology of Language 110:193-201. http://search.epnet.com/direct.asp?an=10516417&db=ufh&loginpage=Login.asp

Boyd, Sally. 1998. North Americans in the Nordic region: Elite bilinguals. International Journal of the Sociology of Language 133:31-50. http://search.epnet.com/direct.asp?an=10474065&db=ufh&loginpage=Login.asp

Briggs, Charles L. 1998. "You're a liar - You're just like a woman!" Constructing dominant ideologies of language in Warao men's gossip. In: Bambi B. Schieffelin, Kathryn A. Woolard, and Paul V. Kroskrity (eds.) 1998. 229-255.

Bronkhorst, Xander. 2000. Utrechtse scholieren praten Murks: 'Wij samen ien sjtad mooi hoofddoeken gezien’. Ublad 32, 19 oktober 2002. http://ublad.warande.uu.nl/ubladen/32/08/15murks.html

Bucholtz, Mary. 2002. Youth and cultural practice. Annual Review of Anthropology 31:525-552 http://arjournals.annualreviews.org/doi/pdf/10.1146/annurev.anthro.31.040402.085443

Collins, James. 1998. Our ideologies and theirs. In: Bambi B. Schieffelin, Kathryn A. Woolard, and Paul V. Kroskrity (eds.) 1998. 256-270.

Collins, James. 1999. The ebonics controversy in context: Literacies, subjectivities, and language ideologies in the United States. In: Jan Blommaert (ed.) 1999. 201-234.

Cornips, Leonie. 2002. Etnisch Nederlands in Lombok. In: Hans Bennis, Guus
Extra, Pieter Muysken en Jacomine Nortier (red.), Een buurt in beweging
Talen en Culturen in het Utrechtse Lombok en Transvaal
. Amsterdam: Stichting Beheer
IISG. http://www.meertens.knaw.nl/projecten/straattaal/etnischnederlands.pdf

Cornips, Leonie, en Vincent A. de Rooij. 2003. "Kijk, Levi's is een goeie merk: maar toch hadden ze 'm gedist van je schoenen doen 'm niet": Jongerentaal heeft de toekomst. In: Jan Stroop (red.), Waar gaat het Nederlands naartoe? Panorama van een taal. Amsterdam: Uitgeverij Bert Bakker. 131-142.

Crawford, James (ed.). 1992. Language loyalties: A source book on the official English controversy. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Crawford, James. 1996. Anatomy of the English Only Movement: Social and ideological sources of language restrictionism in the United States. http://ourworld.compuserve.com/homepages/JWCRAWFORD/anatomy.htm

Crawford, James. 1998a. Language politics in the U.S.A.: The paradox of bilingual education http://ourworld.compuserve.com/homepages/JWCRAWFORD/paradox.htm

Crawford, James. 1998b. The bilingual education story: Why can't the news media get it right? http://ourworld.compuserve.com/homepages/JWCRAWFORD/NAHJ.htm

Crawford, James. 2002. Obituary: The Bilingual Education Act, 1968-2002 http://ourworld.compuserve.com/homepages/JWCRAWFORD/T7obit.htm

Dibbits, Hester, en Theo Meder. 1999. Kasbah in de Kanaalstraat: Beeldvorming in en rond een multi-etnische stadswijk: een verkenning. [eerder verschenen in: Volkskundig Bulletin 25(1)[1999]:39-70]
http://www.meertens.knaw.nl/projecten/tcult/kasbah.html / http://www.meertens.knaw.nl/projecten/tcult/kasbah.pdf

Dubbeldam, Piet. 2003. Gemiste onderwijskansen. http://www.oalt.nl/services/actueel_gemonderwijsk.html

Duyvendak, Jan Willem, en Rally Rijkschroeff. 2004. De bronnen van het integratiebeleid. Sociologische Gids 51(1):3-17. http://www.extenza-eps.com/extenza/loadPDFInit?objectIDValue=30372

Edwards, John. 1994. Ethnolinguistic pluralism and its discontents: a Canadian study, and some general observations (focus article, comments, rebuttal essay). International Journal of the Sociology of Language 110:5-219. http://search.epnet.com/direct.asp?an=10516336&db=ufh&loginpage=Login.asp

Edwards, Viv. 1985. Expressing alienation: Creole in the classroom. In: Nessa Wolfson and Joan Manes (eds.) 1985. 325-334.

Extra, Guus. 2003. De omgang met taaldiversiteit in multicultureel Europa. http://www.oalt.nl/services/actueel_taaldiversiteit.html

Extra, Guus, and Ton Vallen. 1997. The sociolinguistic status of immigrant minority groups in the Netherlands. Sociolinguistica 11:204-214.

Flores, Susana Y., and Enrique G. Murillo Jr. 2001. Power, language, and ideology: Historical and contemporary notes on the dismantling of bilingual education. The Urban Review 33(3):183-206. http://search.epnet.com/direct.asp?an=11308923&db=aph&loginpage=Login.asp

Friedrich, Paul. 1989. Language, ideology, and political economy. American Anthropologist 91(2):295-312. http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0002-7294%28198906%292%3A91%3A2%3C295%3ALIAPE%3E2.0.CO%3B2-9

Gal, Susan. 1998. Multiplicity and contention among language ideologies: A commentary. In: Bambi B.Schieffelin, Kathryn A. Woolard, and Paul V. Kroskrity (eds.). 1998. 317-331.

Garcia, Eugene E. 2002. Bilingualism and schooling in the United States (focus article, reviewer’s comments, rebuttal essay). International Journal of the Sociology of Language 155-156:1-204. http://www.degruyter.com/journals/ijsl/ijsl155-156_02.html (TOC & hyperlinks to focus article, reviewer’s comments, rebuttal essay)

Grezel, Jan Erik. 2000. Taal in de hoofdrol: Moedertaal en Nederlands in het multiculturele drama. Onze Taal (Juni 2000) http://www.onzetaal.nl/archief/2000/06/1.html

Hamel, Rainer Enrique. 1997. Introduction: linguistic human rights in a sociolinguistic perspective. In: Rainer Enrique Hamel (ed.) 1997. 1-24. http://search.epnet.com/direct.asp?an=10516321&db=ufh&loginpage=Login.asp

Haugen, Einar. 1985. The language of imperialism: Unity or pluralism? In: Nessa Wolfson, and Joan Manes (eds.). 1985. 3-17.

Hélot, Christine. 2003. Language policy and the ideology of bilingual education in France. Language Policy 2:255-277. http://ipsapp009.kluweronline.com/IPS/content/ext/x/J/4983/I/8/A/10/type/PDF/article.htm

Hewitt, Roger. 1986. White talk black talk: Inter-racial friendship and communication amongst adolescents. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Hymes, Dell. 1996. Ethnography, linguistics, narrative inequality: Toward an understanding of voice. London: Taylor & Francis. [Ch. 4: Report from an underdeveloped country: Toward linguistic competence in the United States, pp. 151-194]

Irvine, Judith T., and Susan Gal. 2000. Language ideology and linguistic differentiation. In: Paul V. Kroskrity (ed.) 2000. 35-83.

Kasuya, Keisuke. 2001. Discourses of linguistic dominance: A historical consideration of French language ideology. International Review of Education - Internationales Zeitschrift für Erziehungswissenschaft - Revue Internationale de l'Education 47(3-4):235-251. http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1017993507936

Kroon, Sjaak. 1998. A plea for normalizing multilingualism. Deutsch lernen 23(1):46-58.

Kroon, Sjaak, and Ton Vallen. 1994. Multilingualism and education: An overview of language and education policies for ethnic minorities in The Netherlands. Current Issues in Language & Society 1(2): 103-129.

Kroskrity, Paul V. 2000. Regimenting languages: Language ideological perspectives. In: Paul V. Kroskrity (ed.) 2000. 1-34.

Kroskrity, Paul V. (ed.). 2000. Regimes of language: Ideologies, polities, and identites. Santa Fe: School of American Research Press / Oxford: James Currey.

Kroskrity , Paul V. 2004. Language ideologies. In: Alessandro Duranti (ed.), A Companion to linguistic anthropology.  Malden, MA / Oxford: Blackwell Publishing. 496-517.

Levende Talen Tijdschrift. 2002. nr.1. Themanummer 'Etnisch nederlands'.

McAndrew, Marie, and Lamarre, Patricia. 1996. The integration of ethnic minority students fifteen years after Bill 101: Linguistic and cultural issues confronting Quebec’s French language schools. Canadian Ethnic Studies/Etudes Ethniques au Canada 28(2): 40-63. http://search.epnet.com/direct.asp?an=9709255084&db=aph&loginpage=Login.asp

Milroy, Lesley, and James Milroy. 1999. Authority in language: Investigating Standard English (third edition). London: Routledge.

Moor, Gaby de. 2003. Wereldklas pept anderstalige jongeren op. Taalschrift: tijdschrift over taal en taalbeleid (21 mei 2003). http://taalschrift.org/reportage/000085.html

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Philips, Susan U. 1985. Indian children in Anglo classrooms. In: Nessa Wolfson, and Joan Manes (eds.). 1985. 311-323.

Philips, Susan U. 1998. Language ideologies in institutions of power: A commentary. In: Bambi B.Schieffelin, Kathryn A. Woolard, and Paul V. Kroskrity (eds.). 1998. 211-225.

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Shannon, Sheila. 1999. The debate on bilingual education in the U.S.: Language ideology as reflected in the practice of bilingual teachers. In: Jan Blommaert (ed.). 1999. 171-199.

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Silverstein, Michael. 2000. Whorfianism and the linguistic imagination of nationality. In: Paul V. Kroskrity (ed.) 2000. 85-138.

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Spitulnik, Debra. 1998. Mediating unity and diversity: The production of language ideologies in Zambian broadcasting. In: Bambi B.Schieffelin, Kathryn A. Woolard, and Paul V. Kroskrity (eds.). 1998. 163-188.

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Vallen, Ton. 2001. Meertaligheid op school: Vanzelfsprekendheid of statuskwestie? [Multilingualism in School: A Matter of Status or a Matter of Course? abstract in English] Taal en Tongval 53(1):2-21.

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Vermeij, Lotte. 2002. De sociale betekenis van straattaal: Interetnisch taalgebruik onder scholieren in Nederland. Pedagogiek 22(3):260-273. http://www.pedagogiek-online.nl/cgi-bin/pw.cgi/articles/000193/article.pdf

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Watts, Richard J. 1999. The ideology of dialect in Switzerland. In: Jan Blommaert (ed.). 1999. 67-103.

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Dutch political parties

CDA [Christian Democrats]. Actueel | Dossiers | Integratie [What's new | Files | Integration]. http://www.cda.nl/domains/cda/pages/content.asp?content=11010000000450_2_10000000001651&navid=10000000000724_10000000000030

D66 [Left wing Liberals]. Verkiezingsprogramma’s [party programs]. http://d66.nl/Verkiezingsprogramma_s

LPF [List Pim Fortuyn]. [site is very poorly organized; use Google to find pages on ‘integration’  http://www.google.com/search?q=site%3Alijst-pimfortuyn.nl+integratie or ‘oalt’  http://www.google.com/search?q=site%3Alijst-pimfortuyn.nl+oalt ]

Jonge Socialisten in de PvdA [Young Socialists in the PvdA/Labour Party]. 2004. Integratie en de Nederlandse taal. Congresmotie  [Integration and the Dutch language. Congress resolution]. 20/06/2004. http://www.js.nl/?credo=518

Partij van de Arbeid {Labor Party]. 2004. Integratiedebat PvdA: Taal sleutel voor succes [PvdA debate on integration: Language key to success]. http://pvda.nl/renderer.do/menuId/121665/sf/121665/returnPage/121665/itemId/34331/realItemId/34331/pageId/37210/instanceId/121674/

Socialistische Partij [Socialist Party]. Dossier Integratie [Integration file]. http://www.sp.nl/dossiers/integratie/

GroenLinks ['GreenLeft' fusion of former communist, pacifist, and environmentalist parties]. Standpunten | Multiculturele samenleving [Positions | Multicultural society]. http://www.groenlinks.nl/standpunten/Thema.2004-03-29.5842

VVD [Right wing Liberals]. Standpunten | Integratie [Positions | Integration]. http://www.vvd.nl/index2.asp?ParentItemID=3&ItemID=813

National and local administration

Ministerie van Onderwijs, Cultuur en Wetenschap [Ministry/Dept. of Education, ‘Culture’, and Sciences] [search this site with Google for ‘integratie’  http://www.google.com/search?q=site%3Aminocw.nl+integratie or ‘OALT’ http://www.google.com/search?q=site%3Aminocw.nl+oalt ]

Gemeente Amsterdam. Dienst Maatschappelijke Ontwikkeling. Educatie en Inburgering [Amsterdam City Council. Dept of Social Development. Education, and 'Inburgering']. http://www.e-i.amsterdam.nl/live/index.jsp

Gemeente Amsterdam. Dienst Maatschappelijke Ontwikkeling. Taalprogramma primair onderwijs [Amsterdam City Council. Dept of Social Development. Language program primary education]. 3 mei 2004.
http://www.onderwijs.amsterdam.nl/live/index.jsp?nav=229&loc=1425&det=6062 & select the hyperlink 'Taalprogramma primair onderwijs' on the right

InburgerNet. Sponsored by the Dept of Justice, this website aims to provide information on all aspects of 'inburgering'. http://www.inburgernet.nl/ ; the site has a separate section on 'Taal' [Language]: http://www.inburgernet.nl/traject/taal/index.html

NT2puntNL. Information on Dutch as second language, financed by the Dept of Education, Culture, and Science. http://www.nt2puntnl.kennisnet.nl/

Onderwijsachterstanden [Educational deficits]. http://www.onderwijsachterstanden.nl/


Action or interest groups

Heemland: Forum voor Nederlandse politiek | Heemland 19 | Wegzinken van Nederland: De Nederlandse etnische entiteit in de waagschaal http://www.heemland.nl/hl19-Wegzinken_van_Nederland.htm

Marokko Community | Algemeen | Marokkaanse jongeren en actualiteiten | Nederlandse taal verplichten? [Morocco Community | General | Moroccon youths and news | Make Dutch language obligatory?] http://forums.marokko.nl/showthread.php?threadid=27227

Nieuw Rechts. Nieuw Rechts forum | Algemeen | Integratie en migratie [New Right | New Right Forum | General | Integration and migration]. http://www.nieuwrechts.nl/forum/onderwerp/9.html , topic: 'geen buitenlands taal in openbare ruimtes' http://www.nieuwrechts.nl/forum/onderwerp/9/bekijk/9309.html

Samenwerkingsverband Opleidingen Allochtone Levende Talen http://www.oalt.nl/

U.S.ENGLISH, Inc. ["citizens' action group dedicated to preserving the unifying role of the English language in the United States"] http://www.us-english.org/.

Sites by linguists & institutes

Crawford, James. 1995-2004. Language Policy Web Site & Emporium . http://ourworld.compuserve.com/homepages/JWCRAWFORD/home.htm [lots of papers and chapters form his books]

Informatiecentrum Taal. Information on Dutch as a second language. http://www.kpcgroep.nl/kennisonline/onderwerp/index.asp?SubjectID=88&ThemeID=16 

Instituut voor Taalonderzoek en Taalonderwijs Anderstaligen (ITTA) [Insititute for Language Research and Language Education Foreign Language Speakers].  http://www.itta.uva.nl/

Meertens Instituut | Straattaal en identiteit in meertalig en multi-etnisch Amsterdam http://www.meertens.knaw.nl/projecten/straattaal.html [articles on 'straattaal', 'street language']

Nederlands Online (NEON). http://neon.niederlandistik.fu-berlin.de/ (of special interest is the section Taalvariatie by Ulrike Vogl http://neon.niederlandistik.fu-berlin.de/langvar/ )

Patrick, Peter. ?-2001. African American English: A Webpage for Linguists (and other folks). http://privatewww.essex.ac.uk/~patrickp/AAVE.html

Poldernederlands [site maintained by the dicoverer of this variety of Dutch; hosts several interesting articles in Dutch and English]. http://cf.hum.uva.nl/poldernederlands/

Research on language in/and education in the Netherlands (an inventory of research projects from the Dutch Research Database) http://www2.niwi.knaw.nl/en/oi/nod/search?query=taal*+en+onderwijs*&startpos=%2Fen%2Foi%2Fnod

Rickford, John. 1996-? Writings on the "Ebonics" issue. http://www.stanford.edu/~rickford/ebonics/

Newspapers (use LexisNexis http://www.lexisnexis.nl/lnn/ln/UvA/ to search for Dutch newspaper articles)

NRC | Dossier Multiculturele Samenleving [Multicultural Society file] http://www.nrc.nl/W2/Lab/Multicultureel/inhoud.html

Trouw | Podium | Immigratie en integratie [Immigration and integration] http://www.trouwpodium.nl/ubb/Forum129/HTML/000007.html

Quantitative data [basically everything about the Netherlands (CBS) and Amsterdam (O+S) that can be quantified]

Centraal Bureau voor Statistiek | Statline [Statistics Netherlands | Statline] http://statline.cbs.nl/StatWeb/start.asp?LA=nl&DM=SLNL&lp=Search/Search [english version: http://statline.cbs.nl/StatWeb/start.asp?LA=en&DM=SLEN&lp=Search/Search]

Gemeente Amsterdam | Dienst Onderzoek en Statistiek [Amsterdam City Council | Dept of Research and Statistics] http://www.onstat.amsterdam.nl/ [English version: http://www.onstat.amsterdam.nl/english/]



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last update: 15 October, 2004 [links to CBS & O+S added]